Common Name: White Elm
Scientific Name: Ulmus americana
Other Names: American Elm, Grey Elm, Soft Elm, Swamp Elm, Water Elm.
Leaf: Simple, alternate; oval; thick, somewhat rough; 10-15cm long; Base asymmetrical, tip pointed; double-toothed; veins prominent each ending in a large tooth; slightly hairy; turn yellow in autumn.
Flower: Small, inconspicuous; green and red; in tassel-like clusters; on individual long slender stalks; male and female in same flower.
Twig: Somewhat slender, zigzag; brownish gray; solid, round; buds pruplish brown; end bud angled 60 degrees from twig; lateral buds pressed against twig.
Bark: On younger trees, smooth, gray, soon cracking vertically; on older trees, ash gray; deeply furrower with wide intersecting ridges; often scaly.
Wood: Hard, heavy, strong, tough, flexible; odorless, tasteless; heartwood pale yellowish or reddish brown; annual growth rings distinct.
Facts About This Tree:
1. One of the largest trees of eastern Canada: up to 35m high and 175cm in diameter.
2. Once a characteristic feature of city streets, parks and rural landscapes in eastern Canada, but Dutch elm disease has eliminated many of the large trees – 90% are gone since 1930.
3. Elms are soil improvers – their leaves, rich in iron, potassium, and calcium, decompose rapidly to replenish the soil.
4. Elm branches are a favorite spot for northern or Baltimore orioles to set up home.
5. Massive old white elms are often hollow or punky in the centre – woodpeckers, chickadees, and nuthatches move into the cavities to set up housekeeping.
6. American Elm wood is relatively odourless; for this reason, it has been used to make crates and barrels to transport cheese, fruits, and vegetables.
Lat, Long: 43.74382,-79.82142
Diameter (DBH): 19.9 cm
Last Year Modified: 2015
Carbon Stored in this Tree: 67.14 kg of C
Equivalent CO2: 246.14 kg of C
1. Blouin, Glen. 2001. An Eclectic Guide to Trees East of the Rockies. Erin, ON. Boston Mills Press
2. Petrides George A. 1998. A Field Guide to Eastern Trees: Eastern United States and Canada, Second Edition. NY. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
3. Farrar, J. L. 2007. Trees in Canada. ON. Canadian Forest Service.
4. Photo Credit: Daniel J. S. Kim, Paul Wray, oregonstate.edu, www.minnesotaseasons.com
5. Kershaw, Linda. 2001. Trees of Ontario. Edmonton, AB Canada. Lone Pine Publishing.
Copyright 2015 Association for Canadian Educational Resources